28 February 2014

Sword at Sunset @ Bedlam Theatre - the trailer and last chance to see ...


This YouTube link to the trailer was tweeted by Anthony Lawton when we (Sandra & Sarah) were both actually in Edinburgh to see the play:

http://youtu.be/bKUOuhHYo00


(for some reason, Blogger won't embed this within the post, but click the link and you'll go to the trailer)

We thoroughly recommend the production, but catch it while you can, as today (Friday 28th February) and Saturday (1st March) are the last two days you can see it.  Go see!


21 February 2014

Sutcliff: Appreciation, July 29th 1992

Rosemary Sutcliff -
Appreciation
Times, The (London, England)
July 29, 1992
Author: Mrs Anna Milford
IN THIS 350th anniversary year of the English Civil War no tribute to Rosemary Sutcliff (obituary, July 25) can be complete without mention of The Rider of the White Horse.

This is surely one of the finest historical novels ever written for adults, and one to re-read again and again with increasing pleasure.

Thomas Fairfax fought against his King for the highest motives, and as Lord General commanded the New Model Army at Naseby. The story is told with such conviction and skill that this surely was how Fairfax's contemporaries, among them Cromwell, saw the ``high flying hawk of the North."

Section: Features
Index Terms: Obituary
(c) Times Newspapers Limited 1992, 2003
Record Number: 995099123

OpenURL Article Bookmark (right click, and copy the link location):

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18 February 2014

Tickets are now on sale for the play adaptation of Rosemary Sutcliff's book!  Tickets are available via the Bedlam Theatre's website

Me and Sarah (plus husbands) will be attending the perfomance on Wednesday 26th February; if you're intending to go then too, please drop us a line if you want to meet up and enthuse about the play and Rosemary Sutcliff!

17 February 2014

Sword at Sunset - the Play - writer James Beagon interviewed


James Beagon has adapted Sutcliff’s 1963 adult novel for the stage. It is to be performed between  25th February to 1st March 2014 at the Edinburgh University’s Bedlam Theatre.  He took time out from rehearsals to answer my questions.

If you have never read Sword At Sunset – WARNING: SPOILERS AHEAD!

Please tell us something about your background
I was born in Oxford but moved to Stockport (Greater Manchester, UK) at a young age. I'm currently in my fourth year of an Ancient and Medieval History undergraduate degree at the University of Edinburgh. graduating this summer.

What has particularly lead up to theatre productions as opposed to fiction, or producing research articles. Or are you somehow finding time to fit one or other of these in?!
I never did anything theatrical in my life bar nativity plays at primary school until I came to university. I saw an opportunity in the Fresher's Week booklet for something called Fresher's Play at Bedlam Theatre, went along to see if I could write for it, ended up acting as well and haven't looked back since. Before I started writing plays at university, my writing tended to come out as short stories and prose fiction whilst I was at school and sixth-form. I haven't done so much of that since the plays began but I do hope to get back to it once I've graduated.

Are you a fan of Rosemary Sutcliff’s novels? Did you read them as a child?
I am a very big fan. I read the Eagle of the Ninth trilogy as a child many times and got introduced to Sword at Sunset slightly later on. I've also read The Flowers of Adonis and Dawn Wind

Do you read much historical fiction? If so, which current authors have caught your eye?
The other major historical fiction series I've read is TheRoman Mysteries by Caroline Lawrence. I acquired The Thieves of Ostia when I was 11 and diligently ploughed through the next 16 books to the end of the series without shame, even though I had supposedly outgrown them. Other than that, I don't usually go out of my way to read historical fiction - the last time I did was when reading I, Claudius and Claudius the God.

What books have you read recently, fiction or non-fiction
The amount I read for pleasure (as opposed to research) has definitely taken a hit since coming to university but I still endeavour to try. The last book I read cover-to-cover was the biography of Robert Enke over Christmas. I'm currently taking tentative steps into the latest Terry Pratchett book, Raising Steam.

Tell us about the Bedlam Theatre. How do students run a theatre?
Sometimes I wonder myself, but we do manage it pretty well. The Edinburgh University Theatre Company occupies Bedlam Theatre during term-time, whilst also supplying two shows and the majority of the team for when the building is a venue during the Edinburgh Fringe Festival. In being the largest non-sports society at the university and also with owning a building, the EUTC has to be more organised than the average society. A committee made up of students essentially run the building during the year and the workload for them can be quite intense. Even those outside the committee have a lot on their plates; with a show going up every week during term-time, most people are usually involved with at least one production most of the time. But the society, despite its size, is very close and people are very willing to help each other out at times of need. All of this work is unpaid, but we all immensely enjoy what we do so it doesn't matter.

Tell us about your production of Imperator (on at the theatre in January)
Imperator happened just two days ago as I write this. It was a play about the Emperor Nero, Otho and Poppaea Sabina written in conjunction with my dissertation, based on my readings of the ancient sources and trying to interpret a sense of character and what might have actually happened between the lines of the often anti-Neronian sources. The cast only had two weeks to rehearse with the script due to the Christmas break, but everything went very well. We had a couple of hiccups here and there but the audience response was very positive, particularly from non-Classicists who were pleasantly surprised to find that they understood everything that happened. Which is always a plus.

Have you been involved in any other theatre productions?
Um, yes. A lot over the past four years, both during term-time and the Edinburgh Fringe. I won't bore you by rattling off a list but I've been involved in writing and directing several of my own original plays (about 12/13 now, I think, if you include short pieces), including Four Walls' (****, Three Weeks) just gone to the Edinburgh Fringe 2013. I've also acted quite a lot as well, both with the EUTC and other companies, such as Charlotte Productions and Relief Theatre. I also got to be an extra in Carmen at the Edinburgh Playhouse alongside a massive stallion last April. That was fun.

Do you go to watch plays - which ones?
Largely, everyone in the student theatre circles at Edinburgh end up watching each other's plays. During the Fringe, I've usually had a comp pass to one venue or more due to being part of a show and also reviewing, so I tend to binge-watch Fringe shows in those venues on my days off. Outside of that, professional theatre tickets look expensive and intimidating but I've seen a few things whilst in Edinburgh. Productions of Fiddler on the Roof, Quiz Show and The Lieutenant of Inishmore immediately come to mind. My girlfriend also took me to see a production of Swan Lake somewhat unwillingly. However, as my first experience of ballet, I enjoyed a lot more than I thought I would.

Have you seen Wolf Hall by Mantel at the RSC?
I haven't. I have read it though! That's another piece of historical fiction I forgot to mention.

Did the film based on Eagle of the Ninth have anything to do with your decision to do the play?
I actually haven't gotten around to watching The Eagle yet, initially because I didn't realise it was actually The Eagle of the Ninth because they changed the name for some reason and then because some friends of mine hadn't particularly enjoyed it. But I've been looking online and the reviews actually seem to be fairly decent, so I'll probably give it a watch when I have some free time (which might not be for a while)

What did you see in Sword at Sunset that made you want to adapt it for stage?
I saw an opportunity to play with people's expectations of King Arthur - of what they think they know. I also saw a challenge - bringing to life a tale that would certainly make an engaging film with vast CGI battle scenes but attempting to bring the true beauty of the book - the character development - to the forefront of people's minds on the stage.

Why this version of Arthur? There are many out there, and some of them focus on a 'real/authentic' version of the story - why chose Sutcliff's?
Sutcliff's was a version that I had read and read again and also one that I discovered that not as many people were aware of as I would have thought. Therefore, I saw an opportunity to share this brilliant story with people who might otherwise not pick up the book.            

Did you need to get permission from Sutcliff's estate to undertake this adaptation?
When I had the idea, I approached the rights holders back in 2012 who got in contact with the estate and we settled on a small rights agreement for each performance.

What path through the story have you chosen, and why? 
The adaptation is, I think, largely faithful to the book. The major story strand missing is that of Sutcliff 'Little Dark People'; the biggest change that this resulted in is the reason for the early death of Artos' child - Guenhumara blames it on the lingering effects of Ygerna's rape of Artos rather than on the village of the 'Little Dark People'. Ygerna's role is thus expanded; she appears to Artos as a vision quite more frequently than she does in the book. That aside, the story plays out exactly as anyone who read the book would expect it to. A fair few of Artos' trips to various lords and princelings are left out to focus on the main story thread and Bedwyr's and Gwalchmai's introductions are now one scene rather than two.

What compromises have you had to make?  Have you had to change the story in any way?
Sword at Sunset features horses; SO MANY HORSES. Horses are naturally quite difficult to get onstage (Carmen's massive stallion not disproving this). Because of this, the bits of battle scene are the companions on foot rather than horseback. Similarly, Cabal the dog is always offstage even when characters are interacting with him from a distance.

Have there been any particular production problems to overcome?  For example, an important aspect in the book is cavalry and obviously you can't have horses on stage - or can you?  How are you doing the battles - onstage/offstage/reported?
As mentioned above, the battles are largely on foot. There is a fair bit of onstage fighting, though not a gratuitous amount. Quite often, we might see a small group of characters rush onstage mid-battle and mid-conversation before rushing offstage to a different side of the battlefield and being replaced by a new group.

Are you attempting to mirror Sutcliff's language in the script? Have you used any of the dialogue directly from the novel?
Absolutely. I've used quite a large amount of dialogue directly from the novel; much more than I expected to. Sutcliff has a fantastic command of dialogue and because the book is written from Artos' perspective, the book has a natural dramatic/cinematic feel to it. In some cases, I've adapted some of Sutcliff's description into new dialogue - her description of Artos and Guenhumara having sex for the first time is now a monologue from Ygerna's spectre mocking Artos. Other times, I've used original dialogue from several different places in the book and changed the order somewhat when several events are compressed into one scene or occasionally re-attributing it to different speakers. Sutcliff's book is not a play however and thus I've written a lot of bits linking the story together and filling in the gaps between events. I've tried to mimic her style of speech wherever I can.

Is there a narrator? The book is written in first person, so does Artos address the audience?
There is no narrator. Artos has a brief soliloquy at the beginning but he never directly addresses the audience.

How did you cast the play? Eg. were you looking for someone who looked like Sutcliff's Artos, or may be someone who had a particular presence?
I rarely cast based on physical appearance for stage shows as it's not quite as important as it is in screen productions. In fact, my approach to casting involved opening up a lot of roles to women as well as men. The characters are predominantly male but we have a fairly even male/female split within the companions. Artos and Bedwyr were limited to men, whilst Guenhumara and Ygerna were limited to women. But these aside, the deciding factor in whether to cast someone in a part was their suitability to the role and ability to act it well, not their gender.

Will you film the production?
We're certainly hoping to.

Are you studying drama? Are you aiming for a career in the theatre?
I'm not a drama student. My plans post-graduation do possibly involve setting up my own small-scale amateur production arm in Edinburgh to continue my theatrical endeavours.

What are you hoping to do in the future?
My goal in life has always been to write. Whether this culminates in writing for theatre, writing novels or writing in some other context (journalism and media, perhaps) remains to be seen.

What are your ambitions?
I can't deny that a bit of fame and money from successful plays or other writing wouldn't be nice, as it's what I love to do. However, the main motivation in doing these theatrical things, and perhaps even in life in general, is to have fun and enjoy myself. I can't help but feel that if you're not enjoying what you're doing, then you're either doing it wrong or doing the wrong thing.

Many thanks to James Beagon for answering all my questions!

Some parts of this interview were included in an article on the Historical Novel Society's web pages.

At the time of posting this blog, tickets for the play were not yet available on the Bedlam Theatre's website - keep checking!

10 February 2014

Sword at Sunset - the play, coming soon!



Coming soon to this blog will be an extended interview with James Beagon who has adapated Sword At Sunset for the stage at Bedlam Theatre in Edinburgh.  The play will debut in the last week of February.  Meanwhile, here's part of the interview which the Historical Novel Society kindly put on their website:

http://historicalnovelsociety.org/adapting-rosemary-sutcliffs-sword-at-sunset-for-the-stage/

5 February 2014

The Lantern Bearers audio


The Lantern Bearers has been available as a CD audio for a while.  The reader is Johanna Ward and you can listen to a short clip here (see Play Sample on the left of your screen):

http://www.audiobooks.com/audiobook/lantern-bearers/136978

Currently on Amazon UK the CDs can be picked up for as little as £10.40, plus £2.80 postage.  Unfortunately UK residents aren't able to downloand the audio version anywhere - as far as I can tell.  North American listeners are lucky to be able to do so, following the link above.

2 February 2014

Website:Rosemary Sutcliff tropes


This blog looks at a website called TVtropes, which also includes some novel authors, including Rosemary Sutcliff.

Here's what the contributors say about tropes and the website:

Tropes are devices and conventions that a writer can reasonably rely on as being present in the audience members' minds and expectations. On the whole, tropes are not clichés. The word clichéd means "stereotyped and trite." In other words, dull and uninteresting. We are not looking for dull and uninteresting entries. We are here to recognize tropes and play with them, not to make fun of them. 

Here's an example of an entry for Sutcliff: 
  • Author Catchphrase: Lots, including the coinages "woodshore" (the edge of the woods) and "house-place" (pointless alliteration).
    • The North "went up in flames" about once per book
    • "It is in my heart that" this is a long way to say "I think"
    • Leaf-buds are like green flame or smoke, fire is like a flower, white flowers are like curds, and sea-foam is like cream
    • "stirabout": because "stew" is cliche
    • "wave-lift": also known as a hill, usually the Downs of southern England
    • A Celtic woman invariably "carried herself like a queen". She may also wear braids "as thick as a swordsman's wrist" and her love interest may be able to "warm my hands at you". If she's really into him it's probably a case of "whistle and I'll come to you my lad" (a line stolen from Robert Burns' poem.)
    • The green plover is always calling. Always. 

    Is that a green plover on this blog's background?!  Did we choose it unconsciously as a being a good design for a blog about Sutcliff?   Further entries for Sutcliff can be found on TVtropes here.

31 January 2014

Two Worlds Meeting: Cultural Interaction and Rosemary Sutcliff's The Eagle of the Ninth



Sarah found this on her travels in the Web: Two Worlds Meeting: Cultural Interaction and Rosemary Sutcliff's The Eagle of the Ninth by Jessica Cobb is a thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for an MPhil in 2012.  It is online in PDF format and can be downloaded from here.  Happy reading!

24 January 2014

Sutcliff: Obituary July 25th 1992

Rosemary Sutcliff - Obituary
Times, The (London, England)
July 25, 1992
Rosemary Sutcliff, OBE, FRSL, historical novelist and author of many books for children, died on July 23 aged 71. She was born at West Clandon, Surrey, on December 14, 1920.
IN THE decade following the second world war a generation of writers and illustrators came to the fore who brought new lustre to the making of children's books. Rosemary Sutcliff is among the greatest of these, despite, or perhaps because of, her concentration on a fairly narrow field of historical writing. Novels such as Simon, set in the Civil War, the Elizabethan Brother Dusty-Feet and the Bronze Age Warrior Scarlet were the result of meticulous research and designed to appeal to children and adults alike. She was particularly at home in the period when the Romans were leaving Britain to the depradations of the Saxons and the Vikings, the Sea Wolves, as she called them.

Rosemary Sutcliff was born into a naval family (her father, George Ernest Sutcliff, rose to become Commodore of Convoys during the war) but the itinerant childhood which this entailed was further complicated by early illness. At the age of two and a half she contracted Still's disease, and the unstoppable progress of this painful and debilitating form of juvenile arthritis necessarily dominated her growth to maturity. Over the years she travelled with her parents from dockyard town to dockyard town and, although she attended schools intermittently, much of her education took place at home or during spells in hospital.

These early years were recalled by her in her typically frank but witty memoir Blue Remembered Hills (1983) where she notes that ``the only subject I was any good at was art" which resulted in her going, at the age of 14, to the Bideford School of Art, where she took a full three-year course with considerable success. Her parents, however, dissuaded her from attempting large-scale painting, and after she had gained her diploma she began to develop a career as a miniature painter and was a lifelong member of the Royal Society of Miniature Painters.

Rosemary Sutcliff's mother whose presence was recognised by her daughter as being profoundly influential had also encouraged her to a love of reading, not least through her own devotion to story-telling and reading aloud. Kipling was a particular favourite and, during the war years, Rosemary Sutcliff began to turn her attention to writing as an even more tractable occupation than miniature painting. She experimented with a Kipling-esque epic called ``Wild Sunrise" which she later said, with a sigh of relief, ``sank without trace". Nevertheless, she persevered with further ideas for stories set in the past and eventually, at the request of the children's department of Oxford University Press, she prepared a manuscript of The Chronicles of Robin Hood which was published, alongside her first story, The Queen Elizabeth Story, in 1950.

There is little in these early works that was to suggest the breakthrough that came in 1953 with Simon, with its Civil War setting, and in 1954 with Eagle of the Ninth, a tale of the Romans in Britain, which was directly inspired by Puck of Pook's Hill. In these two books her gift for imagining herself back into an historical period came to maturity and revealed her ability to give graphic life to a past age and to recognise the constant dilemmas posed by the need to make responsible decisions. Families divide but conscience must be followed; loyalties exact hard penalties.

Eagle of the Ninth brought Rosemary Sutcliff nation-wide fame partly through a highly successful serialisation on BBC Radio's Children's Hour (She once heard a child making a sand-castle say ``I'm building a temple to Mithras"). More importantly though, it led her to a sequence of powerful novels in which she refined her skill at integrating the story of an individual into an intensely imagined historical setting. Several of these novels are linked through subtly suggested family connections, and the use of a ``dolphin ring" (eg The Silver Branch, 1957; The Lantern Bearers, 1959; and Dawn Wind, 1961) and these culminated in her Arthurian novel, published for adults, Sword at Sunset (1963).

Other stories stand to one side of this sequence, either through being set in a different period, such as The Shield Ring (1956) an heroic tale of Vikings defending their Lake District redoubt against the Normans, or through the psychological force of the story, as in what many regard as her masterpiece The Mark of the Horse Lord (1965). This book like several of its predecessors gained a further dimension through the strong and closely integrated illustrations of Charles Keeping.

Rosemary Sutcliff was from the first insistent upon the importance of research into facts and into past modes of thought as a foundation for her historical novels and this gave rise to her writing some evocative books of historical description, such as Houses and History (1960) and some versions of myth, such as Beowulf (1961). She also wrote several other novels for adults and a group of short, individually-published tales for young readers. Almost all this extensive output was distinguished by a vigour of writing and a detailed apprehension of the landscape of the past which showed her triumphant success in overcoming the crippling physical disabilities that had been with her since childhood. The perseverance, balance, and sanguine humour exhibited by many of her heroes were hers as well. She was an inspiring and most companionable spirit.

She did not believe in shielding children from sad or dreadful happenings but felt a responsibility to point out a path, a right way of doing things and a hope for the future, the triumph of civilisation against barbarism. Children, she believed, were capable of understanding intuitively rather than literally and would come back eventually to what they did not understand the first time.

The extent and depth of her research can be judged from the bibliography for The Lantern Bearers which lists 30 books with Sir Arthur Bryant and Sir Mortimer Wheeler rubbing shoulders with Gildas and Nennius and books on Jutland, Celtic Christianity and monasticism. Denied by her arthritic condition most domestic pleasures she worked constantly from mid-morning until nightfall on her writing, sometimes completing three books a year.

Rosemary Sutcliff's achievements did not go unrecognised. She gained a number of awards for her children's books, including, in 1960, the Library Association's Carnegie Medal for The Lantern Bearers. She was appointed OBE in 1975 and was a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
Section: Features
(c) Times Newspapers Limited 1992, 2003
Open URL Article Bookmark (right click, and copy the link location):

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17 January 2014

Sutcliff: Memorial service November 4th 1992

Miss Rosemary Sutcliff -
Memorial Service
Times, The (London, England)
November 4, 1992
Miss Rosemary Sutcliff

The Secretary of State for National Heritage was represented by Mr Vaughan Rees at a memorial service for Miss Rosemary Sutcliff held yesterday at St James's, Piccadilly. The Rev Ulla Monberg officiated.
The Rev Peter Trafford and Mrs Sarah Palmer read the lessons, Ms Jill Black and Mr Anthony Lawton, godson and chairman, Sussex Dolphin, read from Miss Sutcliff's works and Mr John Bell from the works of Kipling. Mr Murray Pollinger, principal, Murray Pollinger, and Mrs Penelope Lively gave addresses.

Section: Features
(c) Times Newspapers Limited 1992, 2003
Record Number: 993493516
OpenURL Article Bookmark (right click, and copy the link location):

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10 January 2014

Sword at Sunset at 50 (from the Independent, 2012)

Sword at Sunset, By Rosemary Sutcliff

This anniversary edition* of Rosemary Sutcliff's 'Arthurian' adult novel proves it was her 'odd one out'



3 January 2014

Sword At Sunset - the stage play!


The Bedlam Theatre in Edinburgh is going to be showing a stage adaptation of Rosemary Sutcliff's Sword at Sunset between 25th February - 1st March 2014.  The blog editors (who both currently reside in the north east of England, so Edinburgh isn't that far away!) are hoping to go, and hopefully an article about the adaptation will appear here in due course.

Meanwhile, a little more information about the production.  The production will be ran by students of the University of Edinburgh Theatre Company, and auditions for parts took place in early December 2013.

30 May 2012

Sword at Sunset to be republished - further information

This is a scan from the publisher's catalogue.  For some reason, they spell Rosemary's surname with an e at the end, just once!  Anyway, the book's to be republished in December, which is when her birthday was, so is very apt :)

29 May 2012

Desert Island Discs


In 1983 Rosemary Sutcliff was on the BBC Radio 4 programme Desert Island Discs.  People choose their eight favourite pieces of music and are interviewed, in this case by Roy Plomley.  Search the database here and find the recording, which is downloaded in MP3 format

18 May 2012

Sword at Sunset - to be republished!


Sarah Cuthberston, who keeps a keen eye on online historical fiction publisher's catalogues, has come across the exciting news that Sword at Sunset, Sutcliff's version of the King Arthur legend, is to be republished in hardback by Atlantic Books at the end of this year.  A PDF of the catalogue can be found here, scroll down to page 37. 

9 April 2012

Rosemary Sutcliff: an appreciation


This article was on the Historical Novel Society's webpages for some years, but due to a recent revamp of the website it has been removed.  It was originally published in Solander 8, December 2000, 2-6.




 Rosemary Sutcliff: an appreciation 


Rosemary Sutcliff was born in a blizzard on 14 December 1920. The place was East Clandon in Surrey and in her autobiography, Blue Remembered Hills (1983), she is rather rueful about having been born in Surrey, feeling that the West Country was really her home. Her father was in the Navy, though there were many doctors amongst her ancestors, plus a few farmers and Quaker merchants. Her mother’s brothers all went to live in India to spend their lives working on building railways.

As a child she had Still’s Disease, a form of juvenile arthritis. The effect of this led to many stays in hospital for painful remedial operations. As a very young girl, the arsenic in her medicine caused her to have hallucinations; she saw a panther, wolves and snakes despite not knowing what they were. However, years later, she was to meet them in Kipling’s books. Another effect of illness was that she spent much time sitting still looking, rather than moving around and investigating. This meant that she developed an acute eye for observation. Alan Garner (Wintle 1974, 224) comments that children’s authors often have two things in common – they were deprived of the usual primary schooling and they were ill and left to their own company, which was certainly true of Sutcliff.
 
Due to her father’s postings she moved frequently – living in Malta, Streatham (London), Chatham Dockyard, Sheerness Dockyard and North Devon.  She had an uneasy relationship with her mother, but admitted that “very few of the worthwhile things in this world are all easy”.  Her mother disciplined her rigorously, so that the child Sutcliff would take her spankings in proud silence, and later in life found it very difficult to cry, believing it shameful.

Her mother read to her very willingly, and never got tired of reciting stories.  Sutcliff was reared on a diet of Beatrix Potter, A.A. Milne, Charles Dickens, Hans Anderson, Kenneth Grahame and Rudyard Kipling. She was read Norse, Celtic and Saxon legends, and also historical novels which her mother loved. Surprisingly, Sutcliff did not learn to read until the age of nine.
 
After the period of travelling, the small family finally settled down to live in the Devon area. For Sutcliff, these years alternated between hospital and school. One of the hospitals had a Guide pack; the only badge that Sutcliff won was the Artist’s Badge.  In the hospital library she found a book that proved to be the treasure of her childhood. Called Emily of New Moon, it was a Canadian novel that followed a girl’s adventures and her attempts to be a writer. When she left hospital, she left the book behind, and then much later tried to trace it, but did not recall the author. It was eventually found for her in the 1970s by a Canadian friend who was doing a piece on the work of L.M. Montgomery. The author of Anne of Green Gables had also written Emily of New Moon.
 
Sutcliff ended her formal education at fourteen, and went to Bideford Art School. She passed the City and Guilds examination, and was advised to make the painting of miniatures her profession. Now that she was considered an adult, any operations she had took place in nursing homes.  These she found very lonely, mostly having the companionship of aged ladies when she really needed friends of her own age. She was eighteen when the Second World War broke out. Her father went to command convoys, while she and her mother stayed in Devon. Sutcliff had a miniature displayed at the Royal Academy, and not surprisingly, the subject was a knight in 15th century armour. 
    
Around the middle of the War, Sutcliff “got the itch” to write. She felt cramped by the small canvas of miniature painting, and turned to writing to gain a larger vista. The first story she could remember writing was Wild Sunrise, a story about a British chieftain faced with the invasion of the Romans. In her autobiography she stated that she was happy that the story is now lost, as she felt that it was badly written, having too much of herself in it. She did regret the loss of her next story, which was set in the 18th century. It concerned a little girl sent to stay with her Great Aunt who befriends an embittered young man. Some of its themes re-emerged in The Eagle of the Ninth years later.

Not long after the end of the War, Sutcliff wrote a re-telling of Celtic and Saxon legends which she showed to an old friend.  He sent them to Oxford University Press (OUP). Although they rejected the manuscript, they requested that she write a version of the Robin Hood Story.

It was during this period that she met Rupert, who had been an RAF pilot. He was married, but showed clear interest in Sutcliff. They spent the summer together, but in the autumn he went to work in London. They corresponded throughout the winter, but when he visited in the spring, Sutcliff had a sense of foreboding. It turned out that Rupert had met another woman whom he eventually married when his divorce came through.

Sutcliff had finished The Chronicles of Robin Hood and sent it to be typed up. It took eighteen months for the manuscript to be returned to her, during which time she had written The Queen Elizabeth Story and sent it on to OUP. This book was a subject choice of her own, and she found it a delight to write. It was accepted, and the two books were eventually published in the same year, 1950.

This is where Blue Remembered Hills finishes, but she stated that from 1950 onwards she kept a diary, and that she met Rupert again twenty years later. This infers that producing another volume of autobiography was perhaps on her mind. Her mother died during the 1960s, and Sutcliff and her father moved to Sussex. Despite being increasingly disabled, she travelled abroad and visited Greece. Her father died in the early 1980s.  

Thereafter, she lived near Arundel with a housekeeper and two small dogs (Talcroft 1995, 146). These dogs were Chihuahuas.  In 1984 when one of the dogs died, Sutcliff waited for a decent time before getting another one to be a companion to the surviving dog, Sebastian. She was waiting in the hope that the spirit of the dog that had died would perhaps be reborn into another dog that she might own in the future. This belief in reincarnation had been expressed elsewhere.  Sutcliff said that perhaps the reason authors are drawn to certain eras was that they had experienced them in a previous life, so that they were essentially writing about what was familiar (Fisher 1974, 89). When someone said to her that she would perhaps be a soldier in another life, in reference to Sutcliff's heroes often being warriors, she instantly replied “No thank you, I had enough of soldiering”. It was as if it was something she remembered (Thompson 1987, 14).

Sutcliff was writing the morning that she died on 23rd July 1992.  She had completed the second draft of a novel (published in 1997 as Sword Song), with two more works waiting to be published.
 
 
Writing
Methods

Margaret Meek wrote about the process by which Sutcliff started her novels (1962, 12).  The idea for a story might come from an external source, such as visiting a house and wondering what the previous occupants might have been like when it was new, or perhaps inspiration would come from something Sutcliff had read.  Sometimes the idea would come from the inside, completely out of the blue.
 
Sutcliff used large red notebooks to make her research notes in. An encyclopaedia would be the first port of call, which would in turn provide a reading list. This would be presented to the local library, and when those books arrived they could be mined for the bibliographies in the back, as well as the information in the main part of the works. All the sifted information would find its way into the red notebooks.  Then Sutcliff would start to create a picture of the daily life of the era her idea was set in. This was the most enjoyable part for her. Not much of the plot would find its way into the notebooks, as Sutcliff would make a draft outline of around two or three thousand words, and then she would start to write. Ordinarily, she would write from mid morning until nightfall.
 
Sutcliff tended to write the drafts of her novels in longhand (Moss, 1992), producing three drafts plus a fair copy.  She often wrote 1,800 words per day in a small clear script on a single folio sheet.  Her pen was “fattened” and cushioned so that her arthritic hand could guide it easily (Moss, 1992). The process of producing a whole book would take a couple of months’ research, followed by around eight months’ writing.
 
Sutcliff wrote over fifty books (see the list at the end of this article), some of which were translated into fifteen languages.  She also wrote plays for the radio and stage.
 
Finding a voice
The Queen Elizabeth Story, Sutcliff’s second book, was primarily aimed at little girls. She acknowledged that this and the next two or three books were a little too cosy and too sweet (Sutcliff 1992, 169). However, she was aware that it was her apprenticeship phase of writing. It was Sutcliff's fifth book, Simon, published in 1953, that really showed what she could do, and this was recognised by the critics (Talcroft, 1995, 3). The book is longer and more complex than her previous works.  Set during the English Civil War, it is the story of Roundhead Simon and how his childhood friendship with Cavalier Amias is wrecked by the war. According to Meek, it shows all the traits that became fully developed in later books (1962, 32). However, Simon is not handicapped in some way, or of a surly temperament, unlike many of the characters Sutcliff wrote about later.
 
Continuity
The next year saw the publication of what is probably Sutcliff’s most famous book – The Eagle of the Ninth. The hero, Marcus Flavius Aquila, is invalided out of the Roman army and seeks to find out what happened to the ill-fated Ninth Legion. This is the first book to be set in the Roman period, and Marcus remained one of Sutcliff’s favourite characters, although she was aware that many people found him to be difficult and prickly.  However, she justified this by pointing out that he had undergone some awful experiences (Thompson, 1987, 13). This book also saw the first appearance of a device which provides continuity between several books: a heavy signet ring which was set with a flawed emerald bezel on which a dolphin was engraved. The ring also appears in The Silver Branch, Frontier Wolf, The Lantern Bearers, Sword at Sunset, Dawn Wind, The Shield Ring and Sword Song.  These linked books were written over a period of over 35 years.  

Evans-Gunther points out that a virtual family tree of the Aquila family can be compiled because the connections are so well illustrated (1993, 7). The line runs clearly from Marcus Aquila in Eagle of the Ninth  (129AD) to Owain in Dawn Wind (6th century), with the ring appearing in the other books though not obviously connected to Aquila’s descendants. Sutcliff stated that she had a  “ ... terrific thing about continuity” (Fisher 1974, 186), so it is likely to be a very deliberate strategy. As well as the Dolphin ring, she set The Knight’s Fee (11th century) and Warrior Scarlet (Prehistoric) in the same hills, and used a flint axe in both stories to indicate the historical ties to that land (Fisher 1974, 186). 
 
Continuity is very much a Kipling tradition; he acknowledges the settling of England by many peoples, and the way they eventually learn together to create a new nationality (1962, 52). Also, Kipling emphasises the rite of passage from youth to adulthood.  Sutcliff was happy to admit her debt to Kipling, and wrote an appreciation of him in 1960.
 
Kingship
Throughout her childhood, Sutcliff was steeped in the myths and legends read to her by her mother. Later, she visited a local bookshop to read Fraser’s The Golden Bough, a huge work that contained the ideas and background to sacred kingship and primitive religion that were to surface in her novels in various forms.

Barbara Talcroft’s important study of Sutcliff’s works with reference to this aspect picks out three major elements in her writing: Goddess, Sacrificial King and Maimed King. The relationship that a king has with the Goddess provides him with his legitimacy as a rule. The Goddess can take many forms and represent various aspects of life. For example, she can be a maiden, a consort, or a hag, and these can be linked with the phases of the moon: the crescent moon being the goddess of birth and growth, the full moon the goddess of love and war, and the waning moon being associated with the hag of divination and death (Talcroft 1995, 25).

The sacrificial king has an obligation to sacrifice himself for the good of his people and the land. The maimed king is a danger to his people as he might cause the kingdom to become a wasteland.

A novel that contains all three of these in good measure is Sword at Sunset, published in 1963. This novel is about King Arthur, or Artos as Sutcliff called him. The goddess appears in Ygerna (Artos’ half sister with whom he unwittingly commits incest), Guenhumara (whom he marries) and the Virgin Mary (who is symbolised by a moon daisy which is worn by Artos and his Companions as they go into battle).

The maimed king is Artos who fathers a child with his half sister. He sees this as a great sin and becomes impotent. Though he does father a daughter eventually, both his children are maimed in different ways. The daughter is sickly and dies in circumstances that cause a further rift with Guenhumara (so that he is effectively in discord with the goddess and the land). His son, Medraut, is maimed in character, being twisted by hate instilled by Ygerna, and seeks to undermine and destroy Artos.

Artos is also the sacrificial king, dedicating himself to his people and land, and eventually dying for them.  However, the most obvious example of sacrificial kingship in the book is Artos’ uncle, the High King Ambrosius. In the book’s prequel, The Lantern Bearers (1959), the young Ambrosius rejects marriage saying that “ ... To lead Britain is enough for one man, with a whole heart and no ties”, which is his first sacrifice. In Sword at Sunset he falls ill with cancer, and chooses to die hunting, trying to kill a royal stag – both Ambrosius and the stag are portrayed as sacrificial kings.

Looking at Talcroft’s analysis (1995, 126), it is clear that the kingship themes became most developed in the early 1960s, culminating in Sword at Sunset in 1963, and The Mark of the Horse Lord in 1965. After this time, the themes are still present in one form or another, but not so marked.

Sutcliff always became deeply involved in her books, but Sword at Sunset engaged her more heavily than any other book she wrote (Thompson, 1987, 13). It took some eighteen months to write, and absorbed her completely. She would write from 6am one morning until 2am the following morning, finding the process completely addictive. Usually writing in the third person, Sutcliff found she had trouble with this book, and only became satisfied with it when she wrote in the first person. It was the first time she had done this, but it seemed the best and only way. After finishing the book, it took her several weeks to get back into her own skin, after thinking herself so completely into the character of Artos. 

Sword at Sunset is deservedly one of the most admired historical novels about King Arthur (Thompson 1985, 47).  Though some traditional aspects of the legend are retained, Sutcliff discards those that she deems to be rather late additions, so that, for example, Bedwyr takes the part later played by Lancelot. Along with The Lantern Bearers, it is among some the first attempts at an historical setting for King Arthur. Rather than a just a Celtic setting, Sutcliff also fully acknowledges the strong role that those who had adopted Roman culture (and would have called themselves Roman) would have played in the fifth century. This is still a relatively unusual viewpoint, and it has barely been explored in historical fiction for this period since Sutcliff (Nastali 1999, 19). Combining as it does primitive mythological elements, allied with solid archaeological research, Sword at Sunset is a deeply satisfying book.
 
Dark and light
The theme of dark and light occurs in many of Sutcliff’s novels. The subjects revolve around invaders of one kind or another (the Roman advance in Britain in The Eagle of the Ninth or the Saxon invasion of Britain in Dawn Wind).  Individuals can embody the light or dark as Artos and Medraut are light and dark in Sword at Sunset, or have both aspects such as the greatly conflicted Aquila in The Lantern Bearers. It is possible that this theme emerges so strongly due to Sutcliff's experiences of living through the Second World War. The outcome of the war, taken for granted now, was uncertain then, and the threat of invasion greatly feared. It must have seemed that that Britain was once again under the threat of having its light extinguished.
 
Conclusion
Sutcliff is considered mainly a children’s author.  However, many of her books have a wider appeal, addressing as they do complex and elemental themes in an intricately woven and foreign background. Sutcliff thought that her books were for children of all ages from nine to ninety (Thompson 1987, 13).

That Sutcliff is still an influential and well-respected historical novelist is evident. Recently, Helen Hollick has made a deliberate nod toward Sutcliff and her last book Sword Song where the hero has many ship-borne adventures. In Harold the King, about the last Saxon king of England, Hollick named the lead ship in the Saxon fleet patrolling the English coast Dolphin as tribute to the linking emerald Dolphin that appeared in so many of Sutcliff’s novels.

In her 1960 monograph, Sutcliff laments that Kipling has gone out of style (Talcroft 1995, 2). The same may now perhaps be said of Sutcliff. Harrison, reviewing Hollick’s Arthurian novel The Shadow of the King comments that Sutcliff’s Sword at Sunset is: “... obviously now dated in many ways.”  (Harrison 1998, 4). This is in particular reference to Sutcliff’s “telling” rather than “showing” style of writing, and Harrison herself finds the stories enthralling (Harrison pers comm). Although the “telling” style of writing does not detract in any way from the skill and beauty of Sutcliff’s prose, modern readers are often more used to the story being shown to them.

In the case of the Arthurian period novels there are now new theories, and stories that reflect them. Sutcliff’s Roman books for children are still in print, but other categories have not fared so well. In particular, her adult books are mostly out of print, with Sword at Sunset currently only in print in the US by Tor Publishers.
 
Rosemary Sutcliff was primarily a storyteller. She said that she belonged to the minstrelsy, and chose to present her stories in the way that seemed right to her. In doing this, in her own poetic and rich prose, she has given us books that are already considered as classics and will be read for many years to come.
 
Acknowledgements
Thanks to: Belinda Copson for commenting on the bibliography; Sarah Cuthbertson for the loan of the Walck book on Rosemary Sutcliff; Towse Harrison for some useful perspectives; Helen Hollick for information on Harold the King. Any errors or omissions are my own.
 
Awards given to Rosemary Sutcliff
Carnegie Award, Library Association for The Lantern Bearers 1959
Boston-Globe Horn Book Award, Tristan and Iseult 1972
Hans Christian Andersen Award, Highly Commended 1974
Order of the British Empire 1975
Other Award, Song for a Dark Queen 1978
Phoenix Children's Book Award, The Mark of the Horse Lord 1985
Commander of the British Empire 1992
 
Bibliography and References
1992 “Obituary – Rosemary Sutcliff”, The Times 25 July
 
Eccleshare J. 1992, “Obituary - Rosemary Sutcliff”, Independent 27 July
 

Garside-Neville S. and Hunter-Mann K. 1985, “Rosemary Sutcliff “ Dragon Society Newsletter Vol 2, No 1
 
Garside-Neville S. 1992,  “Rosemary Sutcliff”, Dragon Society Newsletter Autumn/Winter Vol 4, No3/4, 3-5
 
Harrison T. 1998, “The Shadow of the King” The Historical Novels Review December 1998, 4
 
Hollick H. 1997, The Shadow of the King, Heinemann
 
Hollick H. 2000, Harold the King, Heinemann
 
Lively P. 1992, “Obituary - Rosemary Sutcliff” Independent 31 July
 
Meek M. 1962, Rosemary Sutcliff, Walck Inc
 
Moss E. 1992, “Chronicler of Occupied Britannia” The Guardian 27 July1992
 
Nastali D. 1999, “Arthur Without fantasy: Dark Age Britain in Recent Historical Fiction” Arthuriana 9.1 5-22
 
Sutcliff R. 1983, Blue Remembered Hills: a recollection Bodley Head
 
Sutcliff R. 1992, Blue Remembered Hills: a recollection Farrar, Straus and Giroux
 
Talcroft B.L. 1995, Death of the Corn King: King and Goddess in Rosemary Sutcliff's Historical Fiction for Young Adults The Scarecrow Press
 
Thompson R.H. 1985, The Return From Avalon: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in Modern Fiction Greenwood Press
 
Thompson R.H. 1987, “Interview with Rosemary Sutcliff”, Avalon to Camelot Volume II, No 3, 11-14  [web version acessed 9/4/12 at: http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/intrvws/sutcliff.htm]
 
Wintle J. and Fisher E. 1974, The Pied Pipers: Interviews with the Influential Creators of Children's Literature Paddington Press
 
A bibliography of Rosemary Sutcliff's works
1950                The Chronicles of Robin Hood
1950                The Queen Elizabeth Story
1951                The Armourer’s House
1952                Brother Dusty-Feet
1953                Simon  
1954                The Eagle of the Ninth
1955                The Outcast
1956                The Shield Ring
1956                Lady in Waiting (adult)
1957                The Silver Branch
1958                Warrior Scarlet
1959                The Lantern Bearers
1959                The Bridge Builders (originally a short story in Another Six)
1959                The Rider of the White Horse (adult)
1960                Houses and History (non-fiction)
1960                Rudyard Kipling (non fiction)
1960                Knight’s Fee
1961                Dawn Wind
1961                Beowulf (reprinted in 1966 as Dragon Slayer)
1963                Sword at Sunset (adult)
1963                The Hounds of Ulster
1964                The Fugitives (in Miscellany One, edited by Edward Blishen)
1965                The Mark of the Horse Lord
1965                Heroes and History (non-fiction)
1965                A Saxon Settler (non-fiction)
1966                The New Laird (radio play script)
1967                The High Deeds of Finn McCool
1967                The Chief’s Daughter
1967                The Man Who Died at Sea (in The House of the Nightmare and other Eerie   Stories, edited by Kathleen Lines)
1968                A Circlet of Oak Leaves
1969                The Flowers of Adonis (adult)
1970                The Witch’s Brat
1970                The Making of an Outlaw (in Thrilling Stories from the Past for Boys edited by Eric Duthie)
1970                Swallows in the Spring (in Galaxy edited by Gabrielle Maunder)
1971                The Truce of the Games
1972                Tristan and Iseult
1972    Heather, Oak and Olive (three stories including The Chief’s Daughter, A Circle of Oak Leaves, A Crown of Wild Olives)
1973                The Capricorn Bracelet
1974                The Changeling
1975                We Lived in Drumfyvie (written with Margaret Lyford-Pike)
1975                Ghost Story (a screenplay with Stephen Weeks)
1976                Blood Feud
1977                Shifting Sands
1977                Sun Horse, Moon Horse
1978                Song for a Dark Queen
1978                Is Anyone There? (a book on the Samaritans, editor with Monica Dickens)
1979                The Light Beyond the Forest: The Quest for the Holy Grail
1980                Frontier Wolf
1981                The Sword and the Circle: King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table
1981                The Road to Camlann: The Death of King Arthur
1981                Eagle’s Egg
1983                Blue Remembered Hills: a recollection (non-fiction)
1983                Bonnie Dundee
1986                Roundabout Horse
1986                Flame Coloured Taffeta
1986                Mary Bedell (play)
1987                Blood and Sand (adult)
1987                A Little Dog Like You
1989                Merch Y Pennaeth (translated by Gwenan Jones)
1989                Little Hound Found
1990                The Shining Company
1992                The Eagle of the Ninth: Play (with Mary Rensten)
1993                Black Ships Before Troy: The story of the Iliad (illustrated by Alan Lee)
1993                Chess Dream in the Garden
1993                The Minstrel and the Dragon Pup
1995                The Wanderings of Odysseus (illustrated by Alan Lee)
1997                Sword Song

Sandra Garside-Neville is a reviewer for the Historical Novel Review, though she was given a sabbatical (!) to research and write this article.  She's a professional librarian and a freelance archaeologist.  The photograph of Rosemay Sutcliff on the front cover of Solander is from her private collection.


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